Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. angustifolia

Acer pseudoplatanus

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Acer pseudoplatanus

Acer pseudoplatanus L.

Acer pseudo-platanus L.

Aceraceae

dool tree, erable sycamore, nice maple, grief tree, hanging tree, joug tree, maple, planetree maple, purple sycamore, Scottish maple, sycamore, sycamore maple, whistlewood

Originating from the mountainous components of southern and central Europe, and in addition native to the Caucasus mountains in central Asia (i.e. Turkey, Georgia and Russia).

Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) is broadly cultivated and is a well-liked backyard decorative within the cooler components of south-eastern Australia. Quite a few cultivars and kinds of this species are commercially accessible in Australia.

Among the most well-known embrace purple-leaf sycamore (variously referred to as Acer pseudoplatanus var. purpureum, Acer pseudoplatanus ‘Purpureum’, Acer pseudoplatanus ‘Atropurpureum’ or Acer pseudoplatanus ‘Spaethii’) and variegated sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus ‘Leopoldii’). Different cultivars embrace ‘Brilliantissimum’, ‘Nizetii’, ‘Variegatum’, ‘Erythrocarpum’, ‘Rubicundrum’, ‘Bruchem’, ‘Erectum’, ‘Prinz Handjeryi’ and ‘Tricolor’.

Naturalised in japanese New South Wales, southern Victoria and south-eastern South Australia. Additionally regarded as naturalised in Tasmania, although this has but to be ratified by herbarium specimens.

Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) is most widespread in Victoria, the place it has been recorded in quite a few websites together with a number of conservation areas. These embrace the Grampians Nationwide Park, the Alpine Nationwide Park within the north-east of the state, and the Ferntree Gully Nationwide Park within the suburbs of Melbourne. In New South Wales it has been recorded close to Jenolan on the central tablelands west of Sydney and in South Australia scattered outbreaks have been discovered within the Adelaide Hills. It is scattered in north-eastern Tasmania and has additionally been recorded at Taroona, close to the Derwent River, in southern Hobart.

Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) has additionally change into naturalised in lots of different components of the world together with New Zealand, northern Europe, the UK, Madeira, the Canary Islands, temperate Asia, Chile and North America (i.e. components of north-eastern USA and Canada).

In Australia, sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) grows in tall moist forests (e.g. moist sclerophyll forests), alongside waterways (i.e. in riparian vegetation), and in gardens in wetter temperate areas.

In New Zealand this species grows in deserted gardens, in wastelands, alongside roadsides, alongside waterways and in forests.

A moderately-sized to massive tree with a spreading crown normally rising 12-25 m tall, however sometimes reaching as much as 35 m in top. It loses all of its leaves throughout autumn and winter, and new foliage emerges every spring (i.e. it’s deciduous).

  • a medium-sized to massive tree with oppositely organized easy leaves.
  • its leaves are formed like a hand, with 3-5 deep lobes which have toothed margins.
  • separate male and bisexual flowers normally borne on the identical plant.
  • these inconspicuous flowers are borne in branched or un-branched hanging clusters on the suggestions of the stems.
  • its comparatively massive v-shaped fruit (3-5.5 cm lengthy) encompass two prominently winged ‘seeds’ that are joined collectively on the base.

Seedlings have two seed-leaves (i.e. cotyledons) which are considerably elongated (i.e. lanceolate) or rectangular in form. The primary pair of true leaves are normally easy and have sharply-toothed (i.e. serrated) margins. Because the seedlings develop they develop leaves with three, after which later 5, deep lobes.

The trunks and branches of youthful bushes are coated with a clean gray bark, whereas the bark of older bushes turns into scaly. Older trunks typically have a reddish-brown or orange-brown color the place the scaly bark flakes off. The wooden of this species could be very pale, being cream to virtually white in color. The youthful branches and rising suggestions are clean, hairless (i.e. glabrous) and inexperienced or reddish-green in color. Dormant rising buds are current on the suggestions of the branches throughout winter, and these have a number of overlapping scales (about 6 mm lengthy) which are normally inexperienced in color.

The massive leathery leaves (7-30 cm lengthy and 8-22 cm large) of this species are oppositely organized alongside the stems. These leaves are divided into 3-5 broad lobes (normally 5) which are reduce about midway to the bottom of the leaf and resemble the fingers of a hand (i.e. they are palmately lobed). They are hairless (i.e. glabrous), borne on lengthy reddish-green stalks (i.e. petioles) 3-15 cm lengthy, and have coarsely toothed (i.e. serrate) margins. The higher surfaces of the leaves are normally darkish inexperienced or sometimes bluish-green (i.e. glaucous) in color and their undersides are lighter inexperienced and/or with a reddish or purplish tinge (significantly close to the outstanding veins). Leaves step by step change color as they age and ultimately flip yellowish or brownish earlier than being shed throughout autumn and winter.

The inconspicuous flowers seem with or after the primary leaves every spring. Separate male (i.e. unisexual) and bisexual flowers are normally borne on the identical plant (i.e. this species is andromonoecious). These flowers are greenish or greenish-yellow in color and comparatively small (about 6 mm throughout). They’ve 5 tiny sepals and 5 very small rectangular petals (2-Four mm lengthy) which are comparable in look to the sepals (i.e. they’re sepaloid). Every flower additionally has 8-10 stamens and is borne on a slender stalk (i.e. pedicel) 3-Eight mm lengthy. They are organized in branched or un-branched drooping clusters on the suggestions of the branches (i.e. in terminal racemes or racemose panicles). These inflorescences (5-20 cm lengthy) comprise 50-100 flowers and normally have furry branches. As talked about earlier, flowering happens throughout spring (i.e. from September to November).

The distinctive v-shaped fruit (3.5-5.5 cm lengthy) are borne in drooping clusters and every fruit consists of two one-seeded constructions which are prominently winged (i.e. a particular sort of mericarp referred to as a samara).  They are joined collectively close to the bottom to kind  a ‘double samara’. The seed compartment on the base of those constructions is almost spherical (i.e. spherical) in form and 5-10 mm lengthy, whereas the wings are 2-Four cm lengthy and prominently veined. Immature fruit are inexperienced or reddish-green in color however flip brown in color as they mature. They mature on the tree over summer time and autumn (i.e. from December to Could). The comparatively massive seeds are about 5-10 mm lengthy.

This species reproduces by seed, the germination of which normally happens in nice numbers every spring. Vegetation may even re-shoot vigorously (i.e. coppice) when the highest development in eliminated or broken.

The winged fruit are designed to be dispersed by the wind, they usually normally rotate in a propeller-like movement as they fall to the bottom. These comparatively gentle fruit are additionally unfold by water, and presumably by birds and different animals. The seeds may be dispersed in dumped backyard waste and as a contaminant of chipped prunings which are used as backyard mulch.

Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) is considered an environmental weed in Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania. In different wetter temperate areas of Australia, the place it isn’t but nicely established, it is greatest described as a “sleeper weed” due to its potential to change into a critical environmental weed in these areas.

This fast-growing species has change into invasive in open woodlands, forests and alongside waterways (i.e. in riparian areas) within the temperate areas of Australia lately. It competes with native tree species, particularly in riparian vegetation and moist sclerophyll forests, and is normally related to excessive rainfall areas. Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) can change into established in disturbed and intact bushland, however in intact forests it’s primarily a coloniser of gaps within the vegetation, despite the fact that its seeds can germinate in dense shade. When absolutely established in an space it may well considerably scale back the sunshine ranges reaching the forest ground, thereby affecting the vigour and variety of the native floor flora. Dense stands can crowd out native shrubs and bushes and the large leaf drop that happens throughout autumn and winter can impede the recruitment of indigenous vegetation (i.e. the dense accumulation of litter impedes the institution of native species and additional reduces the range of the web site).

Populations of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) are at the moment scattered, however it’s changing into increasingly widespread. The primary infestations are in Victoria, and it’s included on a number of environmental weed lists on this state (i.e. in Knox Metropolis, within the Goulburn Damaged Catchment and in Sherbrooke Forest). It has additionally invaded coservation areas in southern Victoria (i.e. the Dandenong Ranges Nationwide Park and the Tarra-Bulga Nationwide Park) and is certainly one of a number of unique weed species that has change into naturalised at Mt. Buller.

In Tasmania it’s listed as one of many main environmental weed species managed by neighborhood teams related to the ‘Australian Belief for Conservation Volunteers’. It’s primarily a weed of sclerophyll forests in Tasmania and can also be identified to be current in bushland that fringes the Derwent River (i.e. at Taroona within the southern suburbs of Hobart). Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus ) can also be changing into an issue within the Blue Mountains area on the central tablelands of New South Wales (e.g. at Jenolan Caves).

The winged seeds of this species readily germinate and will change into a nuisance in gardens in addition to close by bushland reserves.

Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) just isn’t declared or thought-about noxious by any state or territory authorities in Australia.

For data on the administration of this species see the next sources:

  • Muyt (2001), Bush Invaders of South-east Australia, pp. 231-232.

Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) could also be confused with another weedy launched species together with field elder (Acer negundo), Japanese maple (Acer palmatum), Norway maple (Acer platanoides) and London airplane (Platanus x acerifolia). These species may be distinguished by the next variations:

  • sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) has easy leaves with 3-5 deep and comparatively broad lobes that resemble the fingers on a hand (i.e. they’re palmately lobed). The leaf margins are additionally normally irregularly toothed (i.e. serrate). Its comparatively massive v-shaped fruit (30-55 mm lengthy) encompass two one-seeded, and prominently winged, constructions (i.e. samaras) which are joined collectively close to the bottom.
  • field elder (Acer negundo) has compound (i.e. pinnate) leaves with 3-9 comparatively broad leaflets. The margins of the leaflets could also be toothed (i.e. crenate or serrate) or barely lobed. Its v-shaped fruit (30-40 mm lengthy) encompass two one-seeded, and prominently winged, constructions (i.e. samaras) which are joined collectively close to the bottom.
  • Japanese maple (Acer palmatum) has easy leaves with 5-7 very deep comparatively slender lobes that resemble the fingers on a hand (i.e. they’re palmately lobed). The leaf margins are additionally normally irregularly toothed (i.e. serrate). Its comparatively small v-shaped fruit (15-25 mm lengthy) encompass two one-seeded, and prominently winged, constructions (i.e. samaras) which are joined collectively close to the bottom.
  • Norway maple (Acer platanoides) has easy leaves with 5-7 deep and comparatively broad lobes that resemble the fingers on a hand (i.e. they’re palmately lobed). The leaf margins are additionally irregularly and deeply toothed (i.e. serrate). Its comparatively massive fruit (35-50 mm lengthy) encompass two one-seeded, and prominently winged, constructions (i.e. samaras) which are joined collectively close to the bottom. Its leaves and youthful stems exude a milky-white sap (i.e. latex) when broken.
  • London airplane (Platanus x acerifolia) has easy leaves with 3-5 deep and comparatively broad lobes that resemble the fingers on a hand (i.e. they’re palmately lobed). The leaf margins are additionally normally irregularly toothed (i.e. serrate). Its rounded fruit (about 25 mm throughout) should not have any wings and normally two of those are borne on every stalk (i.e. peduncle).

As well as there are a number of intently associated natives referred to as whitewoods (Atalaya spp.) and booyongs (Argyrodendron spp.) which have very comparable winged fruit (i.e. double samaras). Nonetheless, these species may be simply distinguished by their compound (i.e. pinnate or palmate) leaves, which normally have leaflets with whole margins. In addition they typically retain their leaves all-year-round (i.e. they aren’t deciduous).

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