Fraxinus angustifolia subsp. angustifolia

Acacia baileyana

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Acacia baileyana

Acacia baileyana F. Muell.

Acacia baileyana F. Muell. var. aurea PescottAcacia baileyana F. Muell. var. baileyanaRacospermum baileyanum (F. Muell.) Pedley

Fabaceae: sub-family Mimosoideae (New South Wales)Leguminosae (South Australia)Mimosaceae (Queensland, the ACT, Victoria, Tasmania, Western Australia and the Northern Territory)

Bailey’s wattle, Cootamundra wattle, golden mimosa

This species has a really restricted pure distribution in south-eastern Australia. It’s native to the Temora, Cootamundra, Stockinbingal and Bethungra districts within the inland components of southern New South Wales.

Cootamundra wattle (Acacia baileyana) is extensively cultivated in parks, gardens and as a road tree in lots of components of Australia (significantly in temperate and sub-tropical areas). In truth, it’s in all probability essentially the most generally cultivated wattle in Australia.

A number of cultivars, that differ kind the outline given right here, are grown as ornamentals together with: a cultivar with purplish-coloured younger foliage (Acacia baileyana ‘Purpurea’); a cultivar with yellowish-coloured younger foliage (generally known as Acacia baileyana ‘Aurea’); a cultivar with reddish-coloured younger foliage (generally known as Acacia baileyana ‘Rubra’ or Acacia baileyana ‘Rubrum’); and a low-growing cultivar that grows as a dense carpet (generally known as Acacia baileyana ‘Prostrata’).

Naturalised in south-eastern Queensland, south-western Western Australia, many components of Victoria, south-eastern South Australia (together with Kangaroo Island) and the ACT. It’s most widespread and troublesome in Victoria, significantly within the central and western components of the state, and is comparatively frequent within the hills and plains round Adelaide in south-eastern SA. It has additionally turn into naturalised in lots of components of New South Wales past its native vary, significantly in coastal districts and on the central and southern tablelands. Cootamundra wattle (Acacia baileyana) has additionally been reported as a weed in Tasmania, nonetheless this has not been confirmed by herbarium data.

This species has additionally turn into naturalised in different components of the world, together with southern Africa, New Zealand and south-western USA (i.e. California).

This species grows naturally in open woodlands (e.g. mallee communities), primarily in stony or hilly nation, within the inland components of southern New South Wales.

It has turn into a weed of open woodlands, heathlands, grasslands, forest plantations, roadsides, disturbed websites, waste areas and watercourses (i.e. riparian vegetation) within the temperate and sub-tropical areas of Australia.

An upright (i.e. erect) shrub or small tree with a spreading crown. It often grows 3-6 m tall, however often reaches as much as 10 m in peak.

  • a big shrub or small tree with twice-compound leaves which might be often silvery-grey or bluish-grey in look.
  • its leaves are virtually stalkless, with the bottom pair of branchlets on every leaf being smaller and angled backwards.
  • its golden yellow flowers are borne in small globular clusters, that are organized into bigger elongated clusters.
  • its elongated and flattened pods (3-12 cm lengthy) are hairless and switch brown or reddish-brown as they mature.
  • these fruit are bluish-green and lined in a whitish powdery substance when they’re younger.

Seedlings have two undivided seed leaves (i.e. cotyledons). The primary true leaves are twice-compound (i.e. bipinnate), however solely have two pairs of branchlets (i.e. pinnae), every bearing a number of pairs of tiny leaflets (i.e. pinnules).

The bark on older branches is clean and both gray or brown in color. The bottom of the trunk of mature timber could be as much as 25 cm throughout. Youthful branches are generally rounded, however extra generally they’re angled or considerably flattened in the direction of their ideas. These branches are hairless (i.e. glabrous) or can often have some spreading hairs (i.e. pubescent), and infrequently even have a waxy coating (i.e. they’re pruinose). The ideas of younger foliage are often a particular bluish-green color, although in some vegetation they’re purplish or reddish.

The leaves are twice-compound (i.e. bipinnate) and often have a considerably greyish-green, silvery-grey or bluish-grey look. These leaves (30-65 mm lengthy) are alternately organized alongside the stems and virtually stalkless (i.e. sub-sessile). They include a swollen base (i.e. pulvinus) 2-5 mm lengthy and a important stalk (i.e. rachis) bearing 2 to 4 (often 5 or 6) pairs of branchlets (i.e. pinnae). The bottom pair of branchlets are often smaller than the others and angled backwards (i.e. reflexed). The primary stalk, which is often solely 1-Four cm lengthy, has a small raised construction (i.e. gland) on the junction of the uppermost one to a few pairs of branchlets. Every branchlet is 1-Three cm lengthy and bears quite a few (8-24) pairs of comparatively small rectangular or elongated leaflets (i.e. pinnules). These leaflets (3-9 mm lengthy and 0.7-1.6 mm vast) are hairless and often have pointed ideas.

The tiny golden yellow flowers are fluffy in look because of the presence of quite a few stamens. These flowers have 5 comparatively inconspicuous petals and sepals and are densely organized into small globular clusters (6-Eight mm throughout) containing 11-25 flowers. The globular flower clusters are borne on quick slender stalks (i.e. peduncles) 4-7 mm lengthy and are alternately organized on a department emanating from the forks (i.e. axils) of the leaves, or often on the tip of the stem. These a lot bigger elongated compound clusters (5-10 cm or extra lengthy), containing 8-30 of the small globular flower clusters, might or might not be branched (i.e. they kind inflorescences resembling racemes or panicles) and are considerably longer than the leaves. Flowering typically happens throughout late winter and spring, however might often final into early summer time in cooler climates.

The fruit is an elongated pod (30-120 mm lengthy and 8-15 mm vast) that’s borne on a brief stalk. These pods are flattened, hairless (i.e. glabrous), and both straight or barely curved. They’re bluish-green in color and lined in a whitish powdery substance when younger (i.e. pruinose), however flip brown or reddish-brown as they mature.When absolutely mature they cut up open to launch as much as 12 darkish brown to black seeds. Fruit are usually current throughout late spring and summer time (i.e. from October to January). The seeds (4-7 mm lengthy and 2-Four mm vast) are hard-coated and have a small fleshy construction (i.e. aril) hooked up to them.

Replica on this species is by long-lived seeds, that are inclined to accumulate within the soil and germinate readily after hearth or different types of disturbance.

Seeds could also be dispersed quick distances when the pods cut up open explosively in sizzling climate, and by ants that gather the seeds and take them to their nests. The comparatively gentle and papery pods may additionally be unfold a long way by wind and water. As this species is usually cultivated, one of many important technique of dispersal is in dumped backyard waste. Longer distance dispersal may happen when contaminated soil or mud is transported by autos.

Cootamundra wattle (Acacia baileyana) is considered a big environmental weed in Victoria and the ACT. It can also be thought-about to be a comparatively necessary or rising environmental weed in south-eastern South Australia, south-western Western Australia, south-eastern Queensland, Tasmania, and lots of components of New South Wales which might be past its pure vary (significantly in coastal districts and within the Blue Mountains area).

This species has been extensively cultivated all through Australia for the reason that 1800’s and has unfold from these decorative plantings into native ecosystems, significantly in south-eastern Australia. When grown past its pure vary it readily invades intact open woodlands, heathlands, grasslands and dry eucalypt woodlands on quite a lot of soil sorts. It additionally turns into naturalised alongside watercourses (i.e. in riparian vegetation) and roadsides.

Cootamundra wattle (Acacia baileyana) can displace different wattles (Acacia spp.) which might be native to a specific space, and may kind dense stands that shade out different native vegetation. It’s recognized to hybridise with different species of wattle, thereby partially changing pure populations of those species with unnatural hybrids. Along with this, as a result of it fixes nitrogen within the soil, dense infestations can considerably enhance soil fertility. This will make the soil much less appropriate for the expansion of many native vegetation, and invaded areas can them turn into extra susceptible to invasion by different weed species.

This species is said below laws within the following states and territories:

  • ACT: C4 – prohibited – a pest plant whose provide is prohibited within the ACT.

For info on the administration of this species see the next assets:

Cootamundra wattle (Acacia baileyana) could also be confused with a number of different species of native wattles (Acacia spp.), significantly those who have silvery-grey twice-compound leaves. Related species embody silver wattle (Acacia dealbata subsp. dealbata) and karri wattle (Acacia pentadenia). These species could be distinguished by the next variations:

  • Cootamundra wattle (Acacia baileyana) has silvery-grey twice-compound (i.e. bipinnate) leaves with just a few (2-6) pairs of branchlets (i.e. pinnae). These leaves are virtually stalkless (i.e. sub-sessile) and the lowermost pair of branchlets (i.e. pinnae) are angled backwards (i.e. reflexed). Its flowers are borne in small globular clusters, with a number of to many of those clusters being organized into bigger elongated compound clusters (i.e. racemes or panicles). The pods are comparatively giant (30-120 mm lengthy and 8-15 mm vast) and flattened.
  • silver wattle (Acacia dealbata subsp. dealbata) has silvery-grey twice-compound (i.e. bipinnate) leaves with quite a few (10-30) pairs of branchlets (i.e. pinnae). These leaves are shortly stalked (i.e. petiolate) and the lowermost pair of branchlets (i.e. pinnae) are usually not angled backwards (i.e. not reflexed). Its flowers are borne in small globular clusters, with a number of to many of those clusters being organized into bigger elongated compound clusters (i.e. racemes or panicles). The pods are comparatively giant (20-115 mm lengthy and 6-14 mm vast) and considerably flattened.
  • karri wattle (Acacia pentadenia) has darkish inexperienced twice-compound (i.e. bipinnate) leaves with just a few (2-5) pairs of branchlets. These leaves are virtually stalkless (i.e. sub-sessile) and the lowermost pair of branchlets (i.e. pinnae) are very small and never angled backwards (i.e. not reflexed). Its flowers are borne in small globular clusters, with just a few (2-4) of those clusters being organized into quick compound clusters. The pods are comparatively small (20-50 mm lengthy and solely 3-Four mm vast).

Hybrids of Cootamundra wattle (Acacia baileyana) and several other different wattles (Acacia spp.) are recognized to happen, and outdoors the native vary of this species these hybrids are additionally thought-about to be weeds. Such hybrids could be similar to Cootamundra wattle (Acacia baileyana), however are often intermediate in look between the 2 species concerned. Probably the most generally occurring hybrid is between Cootamundra wattle (Acacia baileyana) and silver wattle (Acacia dealbata subsp. dealbata).

Observe: This web page solely covers these species which have been reported to be generally confused with Cootamundra wattle (Acacia baileyana). For a extra in-depth key to all the wattle species current in Australia see the Wattle: Acacias of Australia CD-ROM or Flora of Australia, Volumes 11A and 11B.

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