r/Aquariums - Understanding Camallanus: A Detailed and Comprehensive Guide to the Treatment and Biology of these Parasitic Nematodes

A Detailed and Comprehensive Guide to the Treatment and Biology of these Parasitic Nematodes : Aquariums

Be happy to appropriate me or add extra information on this information, making an attempt to assist others as a lot as I can in eradicating these nasties so the extra accuracy and recommendation, the higher. Please, when you have information to assist replace components of this information, remark or shoot me a dm! I’ve put placeholders for information I simply cannot discover sufficient dependable anecdotes on as “**NEED INFO**”, so look out for that on the information desk if you already know a bit about this!

I do know this information is very large, (sorry! haha) bio main right here and I simply did like 4 7-10 pg analysis papers a number of weeks again so I ended up entering into that writing mode after I began citing sources right here.

I’ve had a protracted and horrible expertise with multidrug-resistant camallanus parasites, and through this time I needed to lookup and analysis on my own many issues about them. Sadly most of this information was not localized in a single place, or was primarily based on expertise slightly than backed by scientific research, so I wish to share my findings right here with each these elements to help anybody else battling these notably nasty parasites, and educate different fish homeowners with extra helpful data than simply “hey, do this random drug!”.

Half 1: The Biology of Camallanus

Normal Data and Theories

Camallanus is a genus of inner parasitic roundworms (nematodes) during which 9 species exist. Species would not matter massively if it is alive and actively infecting your fish, as a result of solely two varieties infect fish this quickly and are discovered within the aquarium commerce; C. cotti and C. lacustris, C. cotti being the most typical. Moravec and Justine (2006) state that in aquarium fish cultures, this nematode could also be present in Europe, North America (Canada particularly), South America (Brazil particularly), the West Indies (Puerto Rico), and Australia. It’s in all these nations the parasite is continuously imported with unique fish from Asia, particularly Singapore. This was the case with my fish, as my parasite issues began after I purchased an grownup Gardner’s Killifish from the pet retailer, from which the overwhelming majority of this species is bred in Singapore. Bettas are one other frequent species discovered with this parasite, and the fancier varieties all come from Singapore. Camallanus is extraordinarily frequent amongst guppies, which appear to have an affinity for the nematode. Guppies are bred worldwide, however this assertion from a fishkeeping journal article on guppies just about summarizes why many new guppy homeowners might discover themselves coping with this parasite; “inventory from a retailer will usually have been bred on fish farms in South-East Asia or from Sri Lanka” (Sensible Fishkeeping, 2016).

Curiously sufficient, all Three species are in the identical order; Cyprinodontiformes, which incorporates labyrinth fishes, livebearers, and killifish. Nonetheless, I can affirm no doubt (together with the various different research that exist) that it may most positively infect fish outdoors this order, as one in all my Peacock Gudgeons (Order Gobiiformes) got here down with the worms. Nevertheless it does appear to be extra infectious in direction of Cyprinodontiformes specifically. In my tank I had a roughly equal inhabitants ratio of gudgeons to killifish, and all fish have been of comparable measurement and age. In the course of the 2+ months coping with this, all however 2 of my killies received worms, whereas just one gudgeon caught them. Moreover, none of my otocinclus catfish appeared to have been contaminated. I believe fish with extremely specialised intestines like this can be proof against Camallanus, because the construction is just too completely different to determine and even thrive in.

Life Cycles

Camallanus have two strategies of replica. The primary includes utilizing reside microscopic invertebrates like cyclops, tubifex worms, copepods, or daphnia as a secondary host for larvae, that are finally killed and/or eaten by a fish (also referred to as heteroxeny). In most aquarium infections, species that reproduce by means of heteroxeny alone are fairly uncommon as a result of that is extremely inefficient so far as parasites go, and barely infects a couple of fish, making this technique far much less infective (Levsen and Jakobsen, 2002). Based on Levsen and Jakobsen (2002), species that may reproduce through each strategies are pressured to unfold by means of reside larvae slightly than heteroxeny in aquariums, because the parasite can resist a number of generations in copepod-free tanks, or expertise a bottleneck on account of a low availability of copepod hosts. Usually the one approach you’d get a pressure like this could be in case your fish has been fed aquatic invertebrates that have been reside or weren’t freeze-dried/processed in a way that removes any and all doable germs/parasites, and once more, infections from that is uncommon even then. I’ve seen discussion board posts earlier than the place folks state Camallanus is spreading by utilizing their thriller snails or ramshorns, and even shrimp as an intermediate host, however that is inconceivable for two causes. 1: as a result of the contaminated fish must eat the massive inverts, and a pair of: usually snails and different giant inverts are MUCH too massive to be a helpful host for heteroxeny. Camallanus infects copepods and different small hosts by wiggling round as a microscopic larvae on the substrate, which is then eaten by the hungry, miniscule invertebrates that may SEE it. They’re far to small to be seen and focused by bigger invertebrates, and if they’re by probability then they may simply be digested by the far stronger abdomen acids of a big host. It is merely not life like. Simply because you have got any sort of invert within the tank doesn’t imply that Camallanus can use it as a bunch and unfold by means of it, as a result of solely the tiny, insectlike “feeder” invertebrates might be hosts for it.

The opposite technique of an infection spreads reside larvae into the water column (also referred to as monoxeny). I’ve seen folks say each that they unfold reside larvae within the water, or drop eggs into the substrate (extra usually about eggs), however most individuals have heard about these nematodes from little to no analysis or anecdotes from others, so I am going to clear up the confusion right here. Do not hassle to fret and skim what folks write about Camallanus eggs, as a result of if a couple of of your fish has come down this parasite then this can be a 99.9% affirmation that you’ve got a species that reproduces through monoxeny (LIVE LARVAE, and NOT EGGS), and is most probably C. cotti. Untergasser’s Handbook of Fish Ailments (1989) makes this distinction probably the most clear and well-understood:

“Most Camallanus species reproduce by the use of an intermediate host . . . These carry the larval worms into the aquarium, however the likelihood of an infection even with reside meals from ponds is extraordinarily small. The species Camallanus lacustris and C. cotti, most likely from Asia, can multiply in an aquarium as a result of they produce reside larvae. They don’t want an intermediate host for not less than a number of generations.” (Untergasser, pg. 106).

These species are those which can be going to unfold in your aquarium, and lots of people discuss eggs however that is actually not what occurs biologically with extremely infectious C. cotti, as a result of these species don’t want to breed with intermediate hosts and eggs. This concern with eggs probably stems from a misunderstanding as the vast majority of anti-parasitic fish meds point out eggs, nonetheless these meds are additionally meant to deal with a number of species/genus of parasites, a few of which do produce eggs. What lands on the substrate as a substitute of eggs are larvae, and as Rogowski et al. (2020) describes, the life cycle from intestine larvae to grownup worms takes about 30 days.

Copy and Attachment

After this, mature females emerge from the vent and reside larvae are deposited to the substrate, the place ” they will survive for as much as Three wks” (p. 8). These larvae are produced within the ovoviviparous (eggs hatch within the mom and are born reside, like garter snakes) feminine, and launched motile and capable of straight infect fish or copepods instantly after delivery. After feeding and maturing within the intestine of their host, they turn into sexually mature and latch onto the tissue of the host’s intestine utilizing a ridged or spiked sclerotized construction particular to predatory nematodes, often called the Buccal Capsule. The Buccal Capsule capabilities as a “mouth” for parasitic worms, which do not have a totally developed oral construction. The Buccal Capsule doesn’t absolutely sclerotize (harden) till the worm turns into sexually mature (Levsen and Berland, 2002). After attachment, the worms feed on the blood and tissue fluid of their host, giving them their purple shade (Rogowski et al., 2020). As quickly as you see grownup worms popping out a fish’s anus, contemplate the remainder within the tank contaminated.

r/Aquariums - Understanding Camallanus: A Detailed and Comprehensive Guide to the Treatment and Biology of these Parasitic Nematodes

Microscopic view of Camallanus cotti. Picture 5. Cross-section view of the buccal capsule hooked up to the intestinal wall of the rectum. 6. Anterior (head-facing) ventral (underside) view of an grownup feminine C. cotti. 7. Mouth of grownup feminine Camallanus, with absolutely sclerotized ridges of buccal capsule seen, entrance view. 8. Buccal capsule of mature feminine Camallanus, aspect view. The three prongs present a lateral view of a chitinous construction that capabilities like lips for Camallanidae, referred to as tridents (Hetherington, 1922). Menezes et al., 2006 (see works cited for full entry).

These worms infect two components of the physique; the females cling to the within of the rectum or intestinal lining and stick out as a purple thread about 2 or extra mm out of the fish, spreading eggs or larvae. They go out and in of the anus of the fish, and I’ve solely ever seen a most of 2-Three females in a fish at a time, however extra extreme infections may have extra. Females are the toughest to kill. When they’re eliminated, as a result of they chunk into the intestines to remain anchored they will find yourself tearing out tissue, resulting in bacterial infections or necrotic tissue. That is extra usually the reason for loss of life than the worms themselves.

Not seen from the surface are the male Camallanus, which I’ve learn someplace (however can not seem to discover the supply; nearly no articles point out the placement of the males of their host for some cause) reside within the intestines someplace. Males are a lot smaller than females, with a smaller buccal capsule (Menezes et al., 2006). From what I can inform, males are FAR simpler to kill than females (I had fish ejecting small, lighter-colored worms after some remedies, however the purple feminine worms protruding the anus wouldn’t die, so I assume these have been both male or youthful worms). An orally administered strongish anthelmintic (will get to this later, however mainly that is the category of drug that every one remedies of Camallanus- except a few- have as an energetic ingredient) will wipe out the male inhabitants in a single go usually.

Please observe that these worms, relying of the species of the contaminated, take some time to kill their host. This doesn’t imply you need to go away it, however for strong fish not less than they will simply survive for not less than 2 months with grownup worms protruding. Or they did in my case. I have not misplaced a fish but simply utilizing principally ineffective remedies. Nonetheless, the longer you wait the bigger the chance you run of bacterial infections after the parasite is eliminated, because the buccal capsule damages the tissues and mucous membrane of the host’s intestines.

The nastiest half about Camallanus, other than their resistance to many generally used medication to deal with them, is the truth that they will take as much as a month or extra to turn into seen, and by then it is too late. I had a single fish with energetic Camallanus floating in a container that escaped into the tank (with no prior publicity to the nematode) in some unspecified time in the future that evening, and although I instantly eliminated it, weeks later a fish in that very same tank had an an infection of grownup worms.


Hetherington, D.C. 1922. Comparative research on sure options of nematodes and their significance. In: Illinois Organic Monographs (Forbes, S.A., Trelease, W., Ward, H.B., eds.), Vol. VIII. College of Illinois, IL, p. 35. https://core.ac.uk/obtain/pdf/4833064.pdf

Levsen, A., Berland, B. 2002. The event and morphogenesis of Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927 (Nematoda: Camallanidae), with notes on its phylogeny and definitive host vary. Systematic Parasitology, 53: 29-37. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1019955917509

Levsen, A., Jakobsen, P.J. 2002. Choice strain in direction of monoxeny in Camallanus cotti (Nematoda, Camallanidae) dealing with an intermediate host bottleneck scenario. Parasitology, 124(6): 625-629. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182002001610

Menzes, R.C., Tortelly, R., Tortelly-Neto, R., Noronha, D., Pinto, R.M. 2006. Camallanus cotti Fujita, 1927 (Nematoda, Camallanoidea) in decorative aquarium fishes: pathology and morphology. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, 101(6):683-687. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762006000600018

Rogowski, E.L.B., Alst, A.D.V., Travis, J., Reznick, D.N., Coulson, T., Bassar, R.D. 2020. Novel parasite invasion results in fast demographic compensation and restoration in an experimental inhabitants of guppies. PNAS, 117(36): 22580-22589. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2006227117

Rundle, J. (Article Author unknown, Rundle was interviewed for article). The Guppy: First loves by no means die [Internet]. UK. Sensible Fishkeeping; 2016 June [cited 2021 Jan 8]. Accessible from https://www.practicalfishkeeping.co.uk/options/the-guppy-first-loves-never-die/

Untergasser, D., trans. Hirschhorn, H.H. 1989. Handbook of fish ailments. Beptune Metropolis, NJ: TFH Publications. Hyperlink.

Half 2: Medicine and Therapy

Normal Data

All however a few the deworming drugs for Camallanus which can be out there or really helpful are a category of medicine often called anthelmintics. Anthelmintics used to deal with fish most frequently work on these worms by paralyzing them to allow them to be handed out by means of the anus. Some folks say sure (weaker) medication can kill grownup feminine worms at greater doses however I might say this can be a mistaken assumption primarily based off seeing the interior male worms dying, and wouldn’t advocate it. I stored making an attempt increasingly meds with the primary fish out of sheer desperation they usually ended up killing her (and this was with fenbendazole, a dewormer with one of many largest security margins on the market). Some anthelmintics DO kill nematode worms, however most should not secure for fish or have a particularly low margin of security (ie: Ivermectin). The (secure) medication should not simply metabolized by the our bodies of fish, so when ingested the drug will go by means of the GI tract and out the anus, the place it makes contact with the worms and paralyzes them.


In North America not less than, Camallanus worms are apparently so continuously handled with probably the most commonly-recommended drugs (fenbendazole and levamisole) that the majority are utterly immune to them (I’ve no official analysis articles on this as this matter is, sadly, extremely understudied). Although I can solely discover anecdotes from fellow aquarists to substantiate this, I can affirm 100% that in my case the worms I encountered have been resistant, as a result of I handled my fish with a number of meds, each usually and with a lot larger-than-recommended doses, in addition to administered each orally and externally, and for longer durations of time*. Neither Fenbendazole or Levamisole labored.

*Notice that you simply should not do that except your fish are extraordinarily strong like my killifish and peacock gudgeons. If it isn’t working, do not maintain pushing as a result of from what I’ve discovered, likelihood is extra is not going to assist. Additionally observe that the much less stress you possibly can put in your fish throughout therapy, the longer they may final. I discovered my killifish all grew to become careworn and really pale once they have been remoted in containers within the tank. Because of this I selected to simply allow them to keep within the tank as a result of it was most likely all contaminated in any case. Nonetheless I solely have a 20G so for others this may not be a good suggestion. However much less stress is essential as a result of it lets your fish survive for for much longer and reduces the probabilities of the fish dying from intestinal harm later when the nematodes are lastly eliminated.

Whereas few parasitic nematodes, and particularly Camallanus, have been studied for resistance, different associated Helminths (parasitic worms) have been, and their resistance in direction of Anthelmintics has grown very like antibacterial resistance has to antibiotics. As Abongwa et al. (2017) states, “The repeated and improper use of at present out there anthelmintics has led to the event of resistance in quite a few veterinary parasite species worldwide”, and on account of the mechanism of motion for almost all of medicine on this class being comparable, resistance to at least one mechanism is more likely to work on a number of medication, also referred to as aspect resistance. Moreover, in accordance with Abongwa, the event of resistance might be fast as some parasites have been discovered to be immune to the livestock dewormer thiabendazole solely Three years after the drug’s launch. The methods parasitic worms use to develop resistance to dewormers are the very same that micro organism use to withstand antibiotics; mutation or deletion of genes, modifying the receptor goal of the drug to lower affinity, lowering or eradicating the enzymes that catalyze reactions with the drug, and extra (Abongwa et al., 2017).


Abongwa, M., Martin, R.J., Robertson, A.P. 2017. A quick evaluation on the mode of motion of antinematodal medication. Acta veterinaria, 67(2): 137–152. https://doi.org/10.1515/acve-2017-0013

What works?

The perfect therapy I do know of that can be utilized on Camallanus, is used not often sufficient (and nearly by no means in NA as a result of you possibly can solely get it from the UK or EU) that the probabilities of resistance is nearly none, and is extremely efficient in opposition to nematodes in particular, and secure to deal with fish with, is Nematol by Sera, the energetic ingredient of which is Emamectin Benzoate, a typical pesticide for parasitic nematodes in plant roots. This treatment, as a pesticide, is rather more efficient on the worms and really absolutely kills or paralyzes worms (it may be exhausting to inform which once they’re hanging out). Better of all, it isn’t only a normal dewormer however a nematode-specific killer. The biggest draw back is the issue in acquiring it. For those who ordered from a German ebay vet whereas in Canada in mid-November like I did, it’d take over 2 months to randomly present up at your own home squashed and with an $18 customs charge.

ALSO: NEVER GIVE UP TRYING**,** regardless of what number of medication these worms is likely to be resisting, they can’t probably be resistant to each one on the market, as a result of some remedies are WAY much less frequent than others!! Hold utilizing new medication till one occurs to work!! I consider in you, and your fish do too. Give them a very good, lengthy blissful life and do not let these shitty worms win!!!

Knowledge Desk Notes:

Here’s a desk of medicines which will or might not work on Camallanus, and their varied execs and cons. That is primarily based on my expertise and observations which might not be the identical case for everybody, and a few I’ve not tried, however examine different peoples’ experiences or data on boards posts, or discovered research on. Sure information is just not confirmed to be completely correct or recognized (ie: effectiveness on males) due to how little research exist on Camallanus therapy, so this information relies on accounts and statements by aquarists in discussion board posts I’ve come throughout previously. If sure information is just not talked about (ie: whether or not it is secure for inverts), this implies it is the identical as the opposite entries, and the alternative of talked about information (ie: if it is talked about one drug is not secure for inverts, others the place this is not talked about means secure for inverts).

Notice that Anthelmintics NOT talked about on this desk I’ve already regarded into and located to be unsafe for aquatic life and fish, or are NOT EFFECTIVE FOR INTERNAL ROUNDWORM PARASITES, and due to this fact ought to positively NOT be used within the therapy of Camallanus, or in aquariums in any respect. Some are for exterior parasites solely (ie: Metronidazole) or simply ineffective in opposition to Camallanus (ie: Praziquental). See an inventory of those different medication and their effectiveness right here. Additionally observe some medication (Ivermectin, different livestock dewormers secure for fish) might not clearly label the principle ingredient on the entrance, however it is extremely simple to acquire this data with a fast google search as they’re probably legally obliged to offer it (search “drugs identify” energetic ingredient). Any medicines with a type of copper in them shouldn’t be used within the presence of invertebrates interval. Goat dewormers are, for probably the most half, unsafe for fish. Additionally observe that huge quantities of so-called “drugs” which can be offered on on-line distributors like amazon are natural snake oil bs that may do NOTHING to assist your fish. Onion oil and thistle extract doesn’t remedy Camallanus. Watch out for this.

Additionally, it’s doable that given time and a sturdy biology, a fish can overcome Camallanus by itself, nonetheless reinfection likelihood is extraordinarily excessive. I couldn’t kill feminine worms with Levamisole alone, but one in all my fish in some unspecified time in the future immediately had no extra grownup females protruding its vent. I believe this was as a result of the tissue the worm was hooked up to finally necrotized, inflicting it to fall off. Or it may need simply not inherited resistance. Weeks later this fish remains to be energetic and wholesome, so it was probably capable of overcome any doable secondary infections from the elimination, or maybe the worm(s) simply weren’t very properly hooked up to start with.

Effectiveness on larvae/eggs is not included on this as I’ve no approach of confirming it. Regardless, each therapy for Camallanus recommends to dose once more after Three weeks when any intermediate-host-generation worms would have hatched or reached the restrict of their lifespan on the substrate, or when any still-infected fish would have virtually mature worms. So even when it would not work, it would not matter since you simply kill off the worms after they’ve probably “hatched” or contaminated however earlier than they’ve sexually matured and may unfold extra.

One very helpful supply I discovered that truly examined a number of drugs in laboratory circumstances on C. cotti is that this information sheet. Sadly, the unique pdf is in German however for the reason that google patent had a transcript in english for it I made a decision to make a translated model of the pdf myself for simpler studying: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iRXxfYtRXzUz9OaEFGHB2qzbeWjhTO3e/view?usp=sharing


Mehlhorn, H., Schmal, G., Schmidt, J. Use of avermectin with derivation of epi-methylamino group (emamectin) or epi-acetylamino group (eprinomectin) and/or salts, for therapy of fish in opposition to parasites, nematode, Acanthocephala or Crustacea. Alpha-Biocare GmbH Patent no. DE102007002872A1. Accessible at: https://patents.google.com/patent/DE102007002872A1/en (Accessed: Eight Jan 2021)

Knowledge Tables:


Drug Identify & Household Kills or Removes Male Worms/Youthful Worms? Kills or Removes Grownup Feminine Worms? Straightforward to Get hold of? Security Margins Finest Administered Resistance Frequent?
Fenbendazole (Frequent Canine/Cat dewormer). Benzimidazole household. Not IME Not IME Very simple Excessive [1] Orally [2] Frequent resistance and aspect resistance
Levamisole (Fish and Chook dewormer).Imidazothiazole household. Sure IME Not IME Reasonably; banned from vet use in Canada, however might be discovered right here Excessive [3] Orally [4] only, water column might or might not work Frequent resistance
Ivermectin (Horse dewormer). Avermectin household. Sure, might not kill total inhabitants [5] Sure Straightforward to average; will depend on type [6] Low [5] Orally Resistance can happen however far much less frequent because it’s not often used for fish
Flubendazole. Benzimidazole household. Aspect Resistance probably if resisting a “-dazole” treatment[7]
Mebendazole. Benzimidazole household. Aspect Resistance probably if resisting a “-dazole” treatment [7]
And extra, nearly all the identical drugs and much tougher to seek out and dose than those listed above…

[1] On Fenbendazole security margins: In a lot greater portions than really helpful within the water column, this will have a detrimental impact to fish. I doubt anybody does/will strive the identical factor I did, however remember that a considerable amount of this in a smallish quantity of water causes a substantial amount of stress on the physique of a fish and may trigger them to cease consuming and finally die in lower than per week. That is most likely true of any anthelmintic or fish meds, so do not repeat my errors and kill an harmless fish; do not put a big, unknown amount of meds right into a container along with your fish, regardless of how determined you’re.

[2] On Fenbendazole administration: Best to come back by as most vets have it, it was what my vet really helpful at properly. It is one of many weaker Anthelmintics. Apparently solely efficient orally, nonetheless I used to be informed by my vet so as to add it to the water. I did each and neither labored properly.

[3] On Levamisole security margins: The LC50 (deadly focus) for fish is 250 mg/L (0.94 g/Gal) for 24 h within the water. I’ve but to discover a deadly dose for oral administration, fish appear to have the ability to simply tolerate meals soaked in giant portions of this med, even having eaten it earlier than the meals has come into contact with the tank water.

[4] On Levamisole administration: I did not discover including it to the water labored very properly, however including a small quantity of water to the powder to make a pastelike substance then dipping meals in it wiped the interior worms out vastly not less than. Notice that this med dissolves very simply in water so for oral administration to be efficient you need your fish consuming it virtually the second it hits the water, and even earlier than. My fish are aggressive and can assault my arms and the medicinal dropper I take advantage of so this technique labored properly for me as they ate it quickly.

[5] Collymore, C., Watral, V., White, J.R., Colvin, M., Rasmussen, S., Tolwani, R.J., Kent, M.L. 2014. Tolerance and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin for the therapy of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish, 11(5): 490-497. https://dx.doi.org/10.1089%2Fzeb.2014.1021

This research and a number of therapy stories on-line affirm a low security margin for this drug. It might probably simply trigger neurological points with fish and it’s exhausting to calculate dosage as it isn’t made for aquarium use and the paste usually offered for horses can lead to unexpectedly excessive concentrations in meals, inflicting deaths.

[6] Simply discovered as a paste for deworming horses on amazon, however this isn’t a “pure” type and thus it might be very tough to precisely calculate a secure dosage. Moreover, a paste type will include further chemical compounds/components which can have sudden or adverse uncomfortable side effects in direction of aquatic life. Non-paste types of ivermectin should not almost as simple to seek out and will need to be ordered from a pharmaceutical or industrial chemical compounds vendor.

[7] Flubendazole and Mebendazole have extraordinarily comparable molecular buildings, and belong to the identical “household” of medicine within the anthelmintics class, often called Benzimidazoles. The Benzimidazoles group contains Thiabendazole, Fenbendazole, Flubendazole, Mebendazole, Febantel, Netobimin, and plenty of extra kinds of livestock dewormers. In case your worm pressure is resistant to at least one sort of “-dazole” it is extremely probably it is immune to others, if not all in that group. The one distinction between Mebendazole and Flubendazole is that Flubendazole has a fluoride hooked up on the finish of a benzene ring.

r/Aquariums - Understanding Camallanus: A Detailed and Comprehensive Guide to the Treatment and Biology of these Parasitic Nematodes


r/Aquariums - Understanding Camallanus: A Detailed and Comprehensive Guide to the Treatment and Biology of these Parasitic Nematodes


r/Aquariums - Understanding Camallanus: A Detailed and Comprehensive Guide to the Treatment and Biology of these Parasitic Nematodes


Non-Anthelmintic Dewormers:

Drug Identify & Household Kills or Removes Male Worms/Youthful Worms? Kills or Removes Grownup Feminine Worms? Straightforward to Get hold of? Security Margins Finest Administered Resistance Frequent?
Piperazine (Hen dewormer). Piperazine household. Identical drug class as Viagra Very to Reasonably simple [1*] Orally; apparently 25 mg/10 g of meals is really helpful [2*] Resistance doable or may be too weak for majority of instances
Emamectin Benzoate (AKA Nematol [3*]). Avermectin household of Macrocyclic Lactones. Sure Sure Straightforward in UK/EU by means of Amazon, additionally on the shelf in pet shops. Have to be ordered internationally for NA, make take months to reach on account of customs. Excessive, each orally and within the water column; properly tolerated by fish. [3, cited above] Within the water column is really helpful by Sera, however in research [3, cited above] it was given orally, so each are doable and efficient. Resistance HIGHLY UNLIKELY in North America, and doubtless additionally uncommon in UK/EU as it isn’t used very generally.
Eprinomectin. (Cattle dewormer). [4*] Avermectin household of Macrocyclic Lactones. Sure [5*] Sure [5*] Straightforward in case you’re a chemist, is likely to be inconceivable for anybody else [6*] Excessive, each orally and within the water column [5*] Each orally and within the water column is efficient Resistance extraordinarily unlikely, I’ve solely ever discovered point out of this med’s use in that German patent, stunning it is no more well-known.

[1*] On acquiring Piperazine: Most small animal vets ought to have or be capable to receive this, however that is extra an “experimental” therapy for Camallanus because it’s not often really helpful so much less versatile vets might not be prepared to prescribe it. I used to be informed by my vet that it’s weaker than fenbendazole, nonetheless this may not be the case with nematodes. I don’t contemplate it an “official” therapy both, not solely as a result of it’s so not often really helpful however as a result of few accounts exist on whether or not or not it really works properly. It’s, nonetheless, a distinct class of drug and due to this fact might probably have a extra helpful impact in your pressure of nematodes than anthelmintics.

[2*] Supply (take a look at part on piperazine)

[3*] As a result of that is the one fish treatment that makes use of this salt as an energetic ingredient. Emamectin Benzoate is the benzoate salt of the anthelmintic Abamectin, or the 4′-deoxy-4′-epi-Methylamino By-product of Avermectin B1.

[4*] Eprinomectin is the 4′-deoxy-4′-epi-Acetylamino By-product of Avermectin B1.

[5*] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iRXxfYtRXzUz9OaEFGHB2qzbeWjhTO3e/view?usp=sharing

[6*] With a fast google search I discovered you will get huge portions of it meant for cattle use within the US, however this probably is not made to dissolve in aquarium water or be secure for fish. The patent information additionally mentions the strategies you possibly can/should use to make the ingredient water-soluble, so if you’ll be able to entry these instruments and supplies it is definitely doable. It is also doable that the cattle varieties are in truth water-soluble and fish-safe, however you would need to carry out a number of checks or calculations to substantiate this with out risking the lives of your fish.

How have you learnt for positive Camallanus has been killed, or what does it seem like when Camallanus is dying from an efficient or semi-effective treatment?

Listed here are some photographs I took of my fish (Fundulopanchax nigerianus, males) after dosing with Nematol (Emamectin Benzoate). Nematol utterly killed and eliminated all mature female and male Camallanus nematodes 48h after dosing. Beforehand seen and transferring purple feminine worms have been nowhere to be seen after this time period. An efficient nematocidal fish treatment ought to deal with the parasites inside 48 h. and now not. In case your fish nonetheless have worms after this time interval, both your dosing was too weak or the parasite is resistant (extra probably the case).

r/Aquariums - Understanding Camallanus: A Detailed and Comprehensive Guide to the Treatment and Biology of these Parasitic Nematodes

Worms (white strains simply earlier than anal fin) being ejected from anus, ~18h after dosing Nematol. Presumably male or younger worms discovered within the intestines slightly than vent; I observed these kind of worms have a pale yellowish shade, when ejected not less than, slightly than the purple females. Any such ejection of small inner worms was additionally noticed, with a virtually equivalent look, when fish have been orally fed Levamisole. I might name this “Stage 1” of therapy, with not less than a portion of the inhabitants of worms being eliminated.

r/Aquariums - Understanding Camallanus: A Detailed and Comprehensive Guide to the Treatment and Biology of these Parasitic Nematodes

Therapy of C. cotti with Nematol (Emamectin Benzoate), ~24h. after first and solely dose. Feminine nematode is hanging out vent of fish. Throughout this time, motion of worms out and in of anus was not noticed (throughout each Fenbendazole and Levamisole remedies, motion of females getting into and leaving of anus by no means ceased). Blood pulsing by means of the worm was additionally seen, nonetheless worm was hanging out far way over normal, and never motile in any other case. Inside 12 h. after this, the feminine worms disappeared completely, presumably ejected. I name this “Stage 2”, and this stage ensures your fish shall be cured, as a result of probably the most resistant and tough to kill mature females are faraway from the fish for good. After this all that must be eliminated are the remaining worms, after which restoration.

r/Aquariums - Understanding Camallanus: A Detailed and Comprehensive Guide to the Treatment and Biology of these Parasitic Nematodes

Worm ejection, 5 days after preliminary therapy. White shade clearly signifies useless standing of worm, which was presumably nonetheless hooked up by the buccal capsule someplace within the physique till its eventual ejection. I might name this “stage 3”, or the ultimate stage of worm elimination from the intestines of your fish. They repel the previous few useless worms out. After this stage, bacterial infections could also be a threat.


Anthelmintics/Anti-parasite medication which can be comparatively new or so little recognized about them other than that they deal with for nematodes that extra research must be carried out to seek out out effectiveness and toxicity in direction of aquatic life:

  • Tetrahydropyrimidines, in accordance with research [1] causes spastic paralysis of worms as an efficient class of nematocidal medication, and in accordance with this patent, fish are among the most secure sufferers for the medication. Nonetheless too little information is thought and to my data there are at present no current veterinary drugs which use these medication as an energetic ingredient, making them almost inconceivable to come back by. A snippet of information on a compound that features a tetrahydropyrimidine within the components acknowledged that deadly focus occurred for danios after Four days in a focus of lower than 100 mg/L (>0.Four g/Gal). Nonetheless this is not a lot to go off of nor does it inform us a lot about the usage of it on nematodes.

  • Abamectin/Avermectin B1, apparently the benzoate salt that’s derived from this make emamectin benzoate. Generally used to deal with livestock. Based on research [1] it is also utilized in fish farms to deal with fish lice, nonetheless I’ve discovered a number of articles (1, 2, 3) which battle with this information and have discovered it to be extremely poisonous in direction of danios, so except it is utilized in microscopic portions at fish farms or industrial fish are extra tolerant, they most likely do not use the identical type of it that these different research have, nor the identical sort used as an insecticide for crops.

Different Nematocides/Anthelmintics which can be tough to seek out information on, however with a little bit of digging I discovered to be detrimental to aquatic life and will NOT be used on fish.

  • Spiroindoles, this can be a lesser recognized class of drug however the one patent of it out there for veterinary use I discovered in research [2] (derquantel) is extremely poisonous to aquatic life so I might avoid this class completely, particularly since you can not receive this class with out having different aquatic-toxic compounds combined in

  • Organophosphates, Carbamates, Artificial Pyrethroids, not all are for nematodes particularly however all Three are veterinary anti-parisitic drug courses that shouldn’t be used, as a result of in accordance with this web site on parasites, all have confirmed to be extremely poisonous in direction of aquatic life.

  • Artemisinin, a wormwood compound which apparently exhibits anti-parasitic exercise however is poisonous to fish regardless (class 1 aquatic toxicity = the best toxicity stage in direction of aquatic life).


[1] Lumaret, J. P., Errouissi, F., Floate, Ok., Römbke, J., Wardhaugh, Ok. 2012. A evaluation on the toxicity and non-target results of macrocyclic lactones in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Present Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. 13(6): 1004-1060. https://doi.org/10.2174/138920112800399257

[2] Abongwa, M., Martin, R.J., Robertson, A.P. 2017. A quick evaluation on the mode of motion of antinematodal medication. Acta veterinaria, 67(2): 137–152. https://doi.org/10.1515/acve-2017-0013

There’s much more to be written about and revised right here however I have been engaged on this information for a number of days now in a reddit draft and I wish to publish it now as this sort of analysis might be exhausting, regardless of how passionate you’re about it. Most likely few folks will even learn this in any case as a result of it is such a distinct segment matter and I wrote like a bajillion phrases that may be an enormous ass ache to sift by means of, buut… I discovered so much, I discovered it attention-grabbing and extremely informative, so I sincerely hope it may assist others too. I included as a lot as got here to my thoughts and can add extra to fill within the blanks however yea… I believe it actually covers nearly every little thing endoparasite-related with fish and it is much more complete than the vast majority of analysis articles on the market, whereas nonetheless being lengthy, detailed, and researched sufficient to be reliable and useful (I hope). So for anybody battling nematodes on the market… good job discovering this information, it exhibits you care a hell of so much about your fish. You bought this, you will remedy them, I am happy with you. Good luck.

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