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10. LYCHEE PRODUCTION IN THE PHILIPPINES

10. LYCHEE PRODUCTION IN THE PHILIPPINES

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Rachel C. Sotto
[11]

1. INTRODUCTION

The lychee, which is regionally often known as ‘litsiyas’, is
thought of a excessive worth fruit crop within the Philippines. It’s extremely esteemed as
a contemporary fruit and has good client acceptance. Nonetheless, it’s pricey and is
thought of a luxurious fruit. That is as a result of restricted provide of the fruits since
the crop is presently grown on a restricted scale. No native statistics on
manufacturing on the nationwide stage can be found.

Outstanding kinfolk of lychee which might be grown within the nation
are rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and longan (Dimocarpus longan).
A comparatively unknown indigenous species belonging to the identical genus and located
rising wild within the Philippines from sea stage to 500 m altitude is
‘alupag’ (Litchi chinensis subsp. philippinensis).
Preliminary grafting trials indicated its good rootstock potential and compatibility
with lychee.

There is no such thing as a correct date of introduction of lychee into the
Philippines. The earliest recorded assertion of its introduction was made by
Wester (1916). He said that lychee was first launched from China into the
Philippines a number of years earlier at low altitudes however has by no means fruited. The
first recorded occasion of flowering was in 1931. It was of a 25-year-old tree
planted in Rizal. Later, 5 different bushes positioned in numerous locations had been
reported to bear fruits. A marcotted tree planted in 1940 within the Mountain
Province began fruiting six years later. The unique tree from which this
marcotted tree was acquired was of seedling origin from Amoy, China and began
fruiting 12 years after planting. In 1951, a 4-year-old marcotted tree from
Thailand was planted in Bataan, and bore fruits for the primary time in 1953. In
1961, a 30-year-old fruiting tree of seedling origin was present in Benguet whereas
a 23-year-old fruiting tree was found in Laguna. All these discoveries gave
rise to prospects of rising lychee within the Philippines.

2. PRESENT SITUATION OF LYCHEE CULTIVATION IN THE
COUNTRY

Space and Manufacturing

Lychee is likely one of the fruit crops that could be very selective in its
climatic necessities. Within the Philippines, it’s due to this fact grown in areas with a
steady cool (roughly 15 to 19°C) and dry interval for nearly a
month and a heat and humid interval after the bushes have flowered. The cool interval
is required for flower initiation whereas the nice and cozy and humid interval is vital for
a profitable fruit set and improvement. Lychee is due to this fact discovered rising
predominantly within the highlands of the Cordillera Autonomous Area (CAR) within the
northern a part of the nation, particularly within the provinces of Benguet and
Mountain Province (municipality of Bauko), and in Ilocos Sur (municipality of
Cervantes). Lychee is noticed to thrive at elevations starting from 1,000 to
1,380 meters above sea stage. Nonetheless, some bushes is also discovered rising in
the lowlands significantly within the provinces of Batangas and Laguna, that are
additionally within the northern a part of the nation, and Cagayan de Oro within the south, which
additionally expertise cool temperatures through the months of December and
January.

Being a really minor fruit crop and owing to its restricted space of
cultivation, no secondary nationwide manufacturing information is obtainable. Partial information
from the Division of Agriculture’s 1995-1996 survey of the fruit growers
in chosen areas of CAR and Ilocos revealed small sizes of fruit farms. Lychee
growers who had been interviewed had no less than 1,400 m2 to 1 ha of land,
which was additionally planted to quite a lot of different fruit bushes. Interviewed growers in
the Mountain Province had a complete of 125 lychee bushes whereas these in Benguet and
Ilocos Sur had 36 and 31 bushes, respectively.

The quantity of lychee manufacturing from 5 fruit farms within the
Cordillera highlands was estimated at 1.1 tons/annum. Of this, 0.42 ton (38
%) was utilized for dwelling use, 0.66 ton (60 %) for the market and
0.20 ton (2 %) for different makes use of. Every grower produced a mean of 0.22
ton/annum.

The fruit tree growers of the Cordillera Provinces the place most
of the lychee bushes are grown, could also be categorised into 4 teams. The primary
group consists of established growers of conventional excessive worth crops like
pears and lychee (round 50 bushes). This group consists of few growers who’re
principally the outdated settlers in a group. They realized a lot from their outdated
experiences and have generated their very own planting supplies. The second group
additionally consists of established growers however their expertise is lower than 10 years
and their crops are principally citrus (greater than 100 bushes) with few portions (10
to 20 bushes) of lychee, longan and pear. They’re constantly increasing
manufacturing and are sometimes experimenting on new manufacturing methods. The third
group consists of small family growers with lower than 100 bushes (with about 1
to five bushes of lychee, longan and pear). This constitutes nearly all of fruit
tree growers within the Cordillera. The fourth group consists of some growers
with lower than 150 bushes, that are predominantly citrus and they’re somewhat
pessimistic about their fruit enterprise as a result of crop failures.

Varieties

There are two cultivars, that are predominantly grown within the
highlands. These are ‘Mauritius’ and ‘Sinco’.
‘Mauritius’ is an introduction from South Africa whereas
‘Sinco’ is a neighborhood seedling choice from China.
‘Mauritius’ has spherical to broadly ovate fruits with brilliant pink pores and skin and
bigger than these of ‘Sinco’. Fruits of the latter are spherical to ovate
and uninteresting pink.

Within the lowlands, an excellent cultivar from a seedling tree,
which was launched from Thailand in 1968, had been accepted by the Nationwide
Seed Trade Council for business planting. It was named ‘UPLB
Purple’. Marcotted and grafted crops from this selection bear fruits in Three to 4
years from subject planting. The bushes flower from December to January and the
fruits are harvested from April to Might. Fruits of ‘UPLB Purple’ weigh 14
g, are ovate to virtually spherical with a tough pores and skin that turns darkish pink when absolutely
ripe. The aril is 6 mm thick, is 61 % of the entire fruit by weight and has
a complete soluble solids (TSS) of 20°Brix .

Lately, the Division of Agriculture (DA) in Lipa, Batangas
recognized two promising picks for planting within the lowland areas. Considered one of
these was named ‘Olan’ after it’s proprietor. It’s a choice from a
seed, which was introduced from Thailand. The fruit is ovate and weighs 26 g. The
aril is 6 mm thick with a TSS of 17.5°Brix and is 62 % of
the entire fruit by weight. The proprietor claims that this selection is an everyday
bearer. The opposite is an unnamed number of the DA. The fruits are ovate, weigh
18 g and switch rose pink when absolutely ripe. The aril is 6 mm thick, with a TSS of
17°Brix and is 72 % of the entire fruit by
weight.

3. PRODUCTION OF PLANTING MATERIAL

Lychee is propagated by seeds or by vegetative means. Seedling
bushes nonetheless take a for much longer time to bear fruits and they don’t reproduce
true-to-type. Excellent varieties are due to this fact propagated asexually and
seedlings are used solely as rootstocks in asexual propagation.

The frequent technique of asexual propagation of lychee within the
Philippines is by marcotting (air-layering) and grafting. Marcotting is
most well-liked by lychee growers within the highlands since it’s easy and provides very
passable outcomes. One objection to marcotting is the absence of a powerful
taproot. The ensuing marcotted crops solely produce adventitious roots, which
wouldn’t have a powerful anchoring capability and are due to this fact simply toppled over in
instances of robust typhoons. Grafting, then again, is in style amongst
propagators within the lowlands since it’s much less wasteful of propagating supplies
than marcotting. As well as, grafted crops possess a powerful taproot and may
due to this fact anchor the crops higher than marcotted crops.

There are just a few Authorities and personal nurseries producing
asexually propagated lychee planting supplies. Within the highlands, 4 nurseries
(three non-public and one Authorities nursery underneath the Bureau of Plant Trade of
the Division of Agriculture) had been recognized as sources of planting supplies.
These nurseries are all producing marcotted crops at a promoting worth of US$ 2
to US$ Three per piece. Within the lowlands, 4 nurseries (three non-public and one
Authorities nursery underneath the Division of Horticulture of the College of the
Philippines Los Baños) have additionally engaged within the multiplication of lychee
planting supplies. These nurseries produce each marcotted and grafted crops
and promote these at US$ 2 to US$ 30 per piece relying upon the dimensions of the
planting materials. The variety of nurseries producing planting supplies of
lychee is few as a result of restricted demand since lychee may very well be efficiently grown
solely in restricted areas of the nation.

4. ESTABLISHMENT OF ORCHARDS

Lychee is grown predominantly in blended plantings. It’s
intercropped with different fruit crops similar to banana, chico, mango and starapple.
Elaborate land preparation is just not practiced particularly when only some bushes are
planted. The same old observe in yard planting is to dig a gap massive sufficient
to accommodate the basis system of the planting materials. The plant is then set
within the gap, coated with soil and watered.

For small orchards, the land is first cleared. After clearing,
stakes are laid out at a planting distance of 7m x 7m accommodating 204 crops
per hectare or 8m x Eight m accommodating 156 crops per hectare. Holes are then dug
manually at a measurement of 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm on the locations occupied by the
stakes. Earlier than planting, the holes are stuffed with compost supplies or dried
manure blended with topsoil. The crops are set within the beforehand ready holes
with their stems straight and correctly aligned with the opposite crops in all
instructions. The soil is packed firmly to take away massive air areas.

The overall observe is to plant on the onset of the wet
season, in order that the crops could make use of the moisture within the soil for quick
institution within the subject. Ridging is really helpful in low-lying areas so as
to stop waterlogging. As well as for the reason that tree is just not tolerant to wind due
to its brittle branches, sufficient windbreaks are wanted.

Planting of nitrogen-fixing crops like legumes and different
greens in-between lychee bushes is really helpful through the early years after
planting. That is to maximise the usage of the land and for the farmers to derive
an earnings whereas ready for the lychee bushes to bear fruits.

5. CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF ORCHARDS

Coaching and Pruning of Crops

Coaching and pruning of bushes are unknown and never practiced by
the farmers leading to bushes with a mess of branches. It’s, nonetheless,
really helpful that the form of the tree be established through the first two years
of planting. Common pruning ought to be practiced to manage the assault of insect
pests and ailments. As well as, heavy pruning ought to be prevented because it induces
profuse vegetative development as an alternative of floral development.

Software of Manure and Fertilizers

Software of manure and inorganic fertilizers rely on the
stage of sources of the farmers. Compost and farm manure are normally used as
primary sources of vitamins. In some circumstances, chemical fertilizers are additionally added.
The fertilizers assist the bushes recuperate from nutrient depletion, which happens
throughout heavy fruit hundreds, and likewise enhance the standard of the fruit
produced.

Weeding and Mulching

Farmers don’t usually observe weeding and mulching
though some fruit growers restrict their weeding exercise to the removing of weeds
by hand across the cover space. That is achieved to keep away from nutrient competitors and
to stop pests from breeding.

Supplementary Irrigation

The observe of irrigating lychee bushes is rare. If
carried out, irrigation is finished on a minimal foundation. Irrigation of the bushes is
first achieved instantly after planting to permit the roots get involved with the
soil. Throughout their rising interval the crops are principally grown underneath rainfed
circumstances. At sure instances of the yr, particularly when the dry season is
prolonged, supplementary irrigation is practiced. That is normally achieved
manually.

Management of Pests and Ailments

No critical insect pests or ailments have been recognized to infest
lychee within the nation. Nonetheless, among the pests, which have been reported to
assault lychee, are leaf miners, beetles, Erinose mites and stem and fruit
borers. The larvae of the leaf miners tunnel and feed on younger flashes producing
blisters, blotches or tunnels within the leaf. Spraying with systemic insecticide
earlier than and through flushing controls this pest. The larvae of the beetles, on the
different hand, feed on stems inflicting punctures and partial girdling of the stem
inflicting them to wilt or break. Spraying of systemic pesticides, pruning and
burning of infested branches successfully controls this pest. Erinose mites trigger
gall-like signs or velvety swellings on the underside of the leaves inflicting
irregular improvement of the leaves and untimely leaf fall. Management measure
consists of spraying with dimethoate each 10 to 14 days earlier than flushing. The
larvae of the stem borers, then again, bore tunnels underneath the bark of the
stem which later dry up and die. As well as, the larvae of the fruit borers
bore into the fruit and into the seed leading to rotting of the fruit induced
by fungal infestation by the injuries on the fruit. Fruit and stem borers are
managed by spraying with systemic pesticides.

Of specific significance is ‘bat assaults’ throughout
fruit ripening months. Bats have been recorded to lower manufacturing per tree
by as a lot as 50 %. Some lychee growers cowl their bushes with protecting
nets however this can be a tedious and dear observe. Different growers group adjoining
fruit clusters collectively and canopy these with plastic baggage.

Most lychee growers declare that they haven’t encountered any
critical illness in lychee. Only recently, root rot, which was suspected to be
brought on by Clitocybe sp., has killed plenty of bushes within the highlands.
The growers had been suggested to not plant on poorly drained soils as this may increasingly trigger
sudden dying of the bushes even through the juvenile stage.

6. HARVESTING OF FRUITS AND YIELDS

Within the Cordillera, flowering to fruit maturity of lychee takes
eight months, from September to April whereas the harvesting season takes 4
months, from Might to August. In Ilocos Sur, flowering to fruit maturity is from
February to April whereas harvesting is in Might. Growers noticed that in Ilocos
Sur, it takes solely three months from flowering to maturity, which was comparatively
shorter than that within the Cordillera provinces.

Lychees are usually prepared for harvesting if the tubercles
have grow to be flat and easy and the color adjustments from mild inexperienced to brilliant
pink. Growers in Ilocos Sur and the Cordillera nonetheless, thought of solely the
color as their maturity index. Harvesting was achieved as quickly because the fruits
exhibit reddish colouration.

Lychee fruits are normally harvested by chopping or breaking the
complete cluster of fruits with a choosing pole. Selecting the fruits individually is
effort and time consuming, thus it isn’t really helpful. In addition to, it might trigger
ruptures on the pores and skin on the stem finish, which might function an entrance for
decay-causing micro-organisms. Fruits are normally avoided the solar after
harvest to keep away from browning of the pores and skin. The fruits are then packed or bought
instantly after harvesting.

Based mostly on the 1995-1996 figures, manufacturing averages per tree
ranged from 10-50 kg/tree. That is somewhat low compared to the extent of
productiveness in different lychee producing nations. It has been reported that
yields starting from 125-130 kg/tree had been obtained in India and Australia. The
major purpose for the variable high quality and low yields obtained regionally is the
low stage of cultural administration employed.

7. MARKETING

Merchants use plastic baggage for retail promoting and trays or
cartons for the larger volumes, that are offered by importer-wholesalers.
Lychee fruits are bought on a per kilogram foundation. Farm gate worth ranges from
P80/kg to P120/kg.

The channels of distribution of lychees within the nation consist
of two forms of market shops particularly, wholesaler-retailer and retailer.
Wholesaler-retailers cater to the wants of outlets, institutional consumers and
end-consumers. They promote both in bulk or small portions throughout the locality
by the fruit stalls which they occupy. Retailers, then again,
function both as ambulant distributors or fruit stand house owners and promote small
portions of fruits to the customers. Wholesaler-retailers and retailers acquire
fruits straight from the growers.

The commerce movement of lychee is illustrated in determine 1
under.

Determine 1. Advertising and marketing channels of
lychee.

The small harvest quantity limits the advertising movement of the
fruits throughout the space or neighborhood of the municipality or province. The small
amount of fruits harvested is straight bought by the growers themselves who
repeatedly transport greens to the market and promote extra manufacturing of
lychees to extend their earnings. The low yield of lychees in some areas
resulted to the direct advertising of the fruits by the growers to neighbours and
mates throughout the municipality.

Farmers with a sizeable manufacturing both ship the fruits
to the market or have them picked up from the farm or home by the dealer. The
‘suki’ system is the most typical relationship between the farmer and
dealer. That is characterised by the dealer changing into the common buyer of the
farmer because of the great relationship between these two gamers within the
buying and selling system as a result of good costs provided by the dealer who typically buys the
majority of the farmer’s produce.

Desk 1 exhibits the amount and worth of lychees imported from
1991 to 1995. The typical annual development fee of lychee imports is 8.18 %.
The nation is usually a web importer of lychee as a result of its restricted manufacturing
owing to the crop’s subtropical traits. In 1995, the Philippines
imported 1,374 metric tons of lychee valued at US$ 0.52 million. That is 5.48
% decrease than the earlier yr recorded at 1,454 metric tons. When it comes to
worth, the value of lychee has dropped by roughly 24 % from US$
383.76 per metric ton in 1995 to US$ 290.70 per metric ton in 1996.

Desk 1. Amount (metric ton) and worth (FOB US$) of
Philippine lychee imports from 1991 to 1995.

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

Amount

1,481.225

681.030

1,009.411

1,453.835

1,374.099

Worth

485,755

212,536

385,392

554,345

527,328

Supply: Nationwide Statistics Workplace, Bureau of
Agricultural Statistics

8. POTENTIAL FOR LYCHEE PRODUCTION
DEVELOPMENT

Highland areas of the Philippines have potential for the
business manufacturing of lychee. In actual fact, earlier makes an attempt to develop this crop in
the nation have proven that it performs effectively in sure areas. For instance,
‘Sinco’ and ‘Mauritius’ lychee had been discovered to be extremely
promising within the Cordillera highlands. As well as, there have been studies and
observations on fruiting bushes of lychee in some lowland areas of the
Philippines. Nonetheless, regardless of these potentials, solely restricted consideration has been
given to this crop.

Lychee is taken into account a conventional excessive worth crop and it
possesses good client acceptance. Due to this, substantial native demand
for lychee exists. This presents good market alternatives, which ought to encourage
business manufacturing of this crop within the nation. The rising development within the
demand for sub-tropical fruits translate to massive market potential out there
regionally that’s being taken benefit of by imported merchandise. If the development
continues, liberalization might proceed to permit imported fruits to penetrate
the home market. As of the second, the low importation for lychee opens
prospects to introduce this fruit in key cities within the Philippines as soon as
quantity is obtainable. This may solely be attainable by growth of manufacturing
not solely within the highlands however within the lowlands as effectively. Appropriate cultivars for
tropical circumstances ought to due to this fact be recognized and correct rising methods
ought to be practiced in order to supply a big quantity of top of the range
fruits.

With out there highland areas appropriate to sub-tropical fruit
manufacturing and the introduction and planting of cultivars suited to lowland
rising circumstances, the Philippines can save on the valuable international change
and preserve steadiness of commerce by discount in quantity of lychee imports. The
improvement of the lychee trade will even contribute to enchancment of
employment and earnings of highland farmers and rural ladies and can encourage
higher land use and safety of the delicate highland areas of the
nation.

A number of the speedy considerations at current embody the
steady monitoring of current lychee bushes, conducting trials of the
current supplies at numerous places and introduction of recognized superior
varieties for inclusion within the trial. Trial plantings of lychee bushes could also be
carried out within the farmer’s fields the place verification experiments on
applied sciences like cincturing, irrigation and fertilization may very well be
achieved.

Research carried out by the RP-German Fruit Tree Undertaking from
1987-1989 urged two components that might decide the potential of lychee to
penetrate the market. These are the aptitude of the producers to deliver
no matter produce they might to the market at the very best worth and the
capability of the native cultivars to be launched and accepted into the fruit
market that’s dominated by imported lychee cultivars. The primary concern and
problem due to this fact, is whether or not or not the regionally produced lychee can compete
with the imported ones by way of sustained provide, fruit high quality and costs.
An built-in analysis and improvement programme on lychee to adequately deal with
these considerations is due to this fact so as.

9. CONSTRAINTS IN LYCHEE PRODUCTION
DEVELOPMENT

Lack of appropriate varieties

Varietal enchancment of lychee has been very restricted.
Types of lychee had been launched into the nation however their subject efficiency
has not been totally evaluated in potential rising areas. For instance,
between 1986 and 1996, types of lychee had been launched by the RP-German
Fruit Tree Undertaking of the Bureau of Plant Trade and preliminary analysis
indicated that among the assortment has potential for business planting in
the Cordillera highlands. These varieties had not been examined in different highland
areas of the Philippines. As well as, there have been studies that sure varieties
of lychee have been fruiting within the lowland areas of Laguna and Batangas. With
such out there genetic supplies, it’s important that they be examined underneath
numerous elevations of the nation to determine which cultivar performs finest in a
specific space. As well as, varieties which might be tailored to the consistently excessive
temperature of the humid tropical lowlands ought to be launched for trial
planting within the nation.

Excessive price of manufacturing inputs together with planting
supplies

Growth of lychee cultivation to different highland and lowland
areas will be achieved with the intensification of asexual propagation of
chosen cultivars. Some promising cultivars have already been recognized and
are being propagated in just a few nurseries. Nonetheless, these are very costly and
abnormal farmers couldn’t afford to purchase these supplies in nice portions.
Cheap prime quality planting supplies ought to due to this fact be produced by each
Authorities and personal nurseries to facilitate dissemination of excellent
lychee cultivars.

Restricted manufacturing expertise

As of the second, there isn’t any regionally developed expertise
out there on plant diet and irrigation, flower induction, pests and
ailments and post-harvest dealing with. The expertise out there is patterned from
different nations. The current state of fertilization programmes for lychee is
wanting for particular data on the quantity of fertilizer to make use of and technique
of fertilization. Fertilizers are usually not utilized in response to the necessities of
the bushes. Many of the out there suggestions are on an interim foundation normally
projected and derived from farmer’s precise expertise, which varies
in response to places and current circumstances. No in depth or built-in
analysis has to this point been carried out to reply most of the vital questions on
fertilization of lychee underneath native circumstances.

It’s perceived that the adoption of improved manufacturing
expertise developed by the analysis system for lychee can result in seen
and vital adjustments to the fruit trade of the Philippines.

Weak expertise promotion and adoption

Expertise switch is weak, thus the necessity for technical
functionality enhancement. To have sustainability in expertise promotion and
adoption, institutional linkages should be strengthened, thus, the necessity for the
involvement of the native authorities items, state schools and universities and
the Division of Agriculture. Obtainable data and expertise is usually
confined primarily to a couple analysis establishments. Effective-tuning of those
applied sciences is required earlier than they are often really helpful to business
growers.

Restricted authorities help

Regardless of the potential of lychee manufacturing within the Philippines,
the Authorities has not accorded this crop a precedence standing for analysis and
improvement. At the moment, within the Cordillera the eye stays on rice and
vegetable crops. In actual fact, the precedence fruits recognized by the Division of
Agriculture on this area are banana and citrus. As of the second, the
Authorities believes that native lychee manufacturing cannot compete efficiently in
the worldwide market.

Bodily constraint

The key bodily constraint to lychee manufacturing improvement
within the nation is the absence of sufficient irrigation services, particularly in
the distant mountainous areas. The shortage of water sources for irrigating newly
transplanted crops and for the crops’ upkeep is a key concern amongst
the growers.

10. GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND PLANS FOR RESEARCH AND
DEVELOPMENT OF LYCHEE

There have been just a few analysis and improvement initiatives
carried out on lychee. Under is a short historic profile of those initiatives from
1989 to 2000.

On Might 17-19, 1994, the Philippines participated within the Knowledgeable
Session on Tropical Fruit Species, which was held in Malaysia on the
Malaysian Agricultural Analysis and Improvement Institute (MARDI), Serdang,
Malaysia. This session got here up with three suggestions for lychee
analysis and improvement within the nation. First was the gathering and
introduction of lychee varieties that may adapt to tropical circumstances. The
different two suggestions had been the analysis for higher performing varieties
and the conduct of compatibility research utilizing L. chinensis ssp.
Philippinensis.

Title of Undertaking

Implementing Company

Length

Propagation method in lychee and longan

RP-German Fruit Tree Programme – Bureau of Plant Trade –
Nationwide Crops Analysis and Improvement Centre

1989-1994

Efficiency trial of lychee

RP-German Fruit Tree Programme – Bureau of Plant Trade –
Nationwide Crops Analysis and Improvement Centre

1989-1997

Varietal trials of lychee

Division of Agriculture – Cordillera Administrative Area

1990-1991

Growing a lychee based mostly farming system

Division of Agriculture – Cordillera Administrative Area

1991-1994

Micro-propagation of Litchi chinensis Sonn.

RP-German Fruit Tree Programme – Bureau of Plant
Trade-Nationwide Crops Analysis and Improvement Centre

1996-1998

Efficiency trials of promising types of lychee and
rambutan

Division of Agriculture – Southern Tagalog Built-in
Agricultural Analysis Centre

1996-1998

Breeding of chosen fruit crops: 1. Citrus, cashew,
jackfruit, durian, lychee, longan, chico and mango

Institute of Plant Breeding – College of the Philippines
Los Baños

1996-2000

In 1999, an Built-in Analysis and Improvement Programme
(IRDP) for sub-tropical fruits within the highlands was conceptualized. The
sub-tropical fruits included apple, longan, loquat, lychee, macadamia, peach and
pear. The IRDP coated chosen areas in six geo-political areas of the
nation (CAR, 4, 7 10, 11 and 12) and had three primary parts, particularly: a)
market and expertise evaluation; b) expertise promotion and adoption; and c)
expertise technology. The College of the Philippines Los Baños,
College of the Philippines La Granja, Cavite State College, Mindanao State
College, Bureau of Plant Trade, and the Division of Agriculture would
implement the programme for five years. Total coordination and monitoring would
be offered by the Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Pure
Sources Analysis and Improvement. Sadly, this programme was not
applied for the reason that Authorities believed that the event of the
sub-tropical fruit trade within the nation to compete globally is just not attainable.
Its advice was to make use of the scarce monetary sources for analysis and
improvement programmes to develop and commercialize main fruit crops similar to
banana, citrus and mango.

On March 23, 2001, the Nationwide Community for the Conservation
and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Sources (PGR) for Meals and Agriculture
was launched. This community consists of the Bureau of Plant Trade, the
Nationwide Plant Genetic Sources Laboratory, the Division of Agriculture and
State Universities and Faculties (SUC’s). It was created to ascertain a
nationwide system for amassing, conservation, regeneration, multiplication,
characterization, analysis, documentation and utilization of plant genetic
sources of the Philippines. With the institution of this community, the Bureau
of Plant Trade – Baguio Nationwide Crops Analysis and Improvement Centre, which
is a member of the PGR Community, plans to enhance their germplasm actions on
sub-tropical fruits, which embody lychee amongst others.

11. CONCLUSIONS

The lychee is an launched sub-tropical crop within the nation
that bears enticing fruits and has good client acceptance. Though it has a
robust attraction, its manufacturing has not expanded to different components of the nation due
to its exacting ecological necessities. Solely when the grower is assured of a
common flowering and reliable yields can the crop be grown commercially
all through the nation. Nonetheless, this could require concerted efforts on the
a part of the Authorities and the non-public sector.

Two particular methods may very well be put ahead to develop the
lychee trade within the nation. The primary technique is to extend quantity of
manufacturing. This may very well be realized by planting varieties which might be suited to each
upland and lowland circumstances. Applicable manufacturing applied sciences ought to be
practiced and extra coaching ought to be given to the farmers in order that they
might attain the utmost harvest per tree. Satisfactory bodily infrastructures
also needs to be in place particularly the irrigation services because it has been
noticed that harvest and fruit high quality is lowest when water provide is
scarce.

The second technique is to place an added worth to the product.
A method of doing that is by processing. Although processing is a chance, it
is just not an instantaneous choice as a result of at present low stage of manufacturing and lack
of processing applied sciences. Nearly all of the canned lychees within the Philippine
market come from Thailand. The nation might due to this fact study from Thailand, thus
the necessity for a powerful regional cooperation with nations possessing a excessive
stage of manufacturing and processing applied sciences.

One other means of including worth to the produce is by packaging,
which protects the product and on the similar time makes it enticing to the
customers. A method that may very well be adopted is ‘worth bundling’ which
makes use of a number of sorts of fruits which might be out there in a single season. These
fruits may very well be bundled collectively in a fruit basket and given a ‘bundled
worth’. As an illustration, lychees may very well be packaged along with lemons and
pears to be bought at a premium worth to specialised prospects. This technique
would permit the completely different fruits with restricted quantity to be launched to as many
prospects as attainable whereas commanding the next worth caused by its
packaging.

Fruit festivals just like the lanzones competition of Camiguin which
promotes lanzones and the Apo Duwaling competition in Davao which promotes the
durian, ought to likewise be achieved for lychee. This promotion technique would
encourage the lychee growers and replace them on the present tendencies and
expertise developed for the crop. It could even be on these events that the
growers’ promising picks could be flushed out and launched to
people and establishments.

Lastly, the Authorities ought to take the initiative in funding
analysis actions that might encourage manufacturing improvement of the lychee.
Developed applied sciences ought to be popularized and schooling campaigns ought to
goal each the growers and the customers. The Authorities and the non-public
sectors ought to due to this fact work hand in hand to widen the scope for lychee
manufacturing within the Philippines.

REFERENCES

Cablog, N., A. Reyes and L. Iguid. 1995. Technoguide Sequence
No. 2. Manufacturing information for lychee. RP-German Fruit Tree Undertaking, Bureau of
Plant Trade. 9 p.

Basis for Useful resource Linkage and Improvement, Inc. 1997. An
evaluation of the market potential of chosen Philippine fruits within the
Cordillera Autonomous Area. RP-German Fruit Tree Undertaking. 136 p.

Galang, F.G. 1955. Fruit and Nut Rising within the Philippines.
Chapter 46. Household Sapindaceae. AIA Printing press, Malabon, Rizal. pp.
399-406.

Menzel, C.M. 1991. Litchi chinensis Sonn. E.W.M.
Verheij and R.E. Coronel (eds.). Plant Sources of Southeast Asia No. 2. Edible
fruits and nuts. Pudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands. pp.191-195.

Namuco, L.O. and R.T. Calendacion. 1988. Techguide Sequence No.
15. Potentials of lychee within the Philippines. Expertise and Livelihood Useful resource
Heart-College of the Philippines Los Baños. Eight p.

Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Pure
Sources Analysis and Improvement. 1999. Built-in analysis and improvement
programme for sub-tropical fruits within the highlands. PCARRD. 89 p.

Sauco, V.G. 1989. FAO Plant Manufacturing and Safety Paper
83. Litchi cultivation. Meals and Agriculture Group of the United Nations.
136 p.

Sotto, R.C., R.E. Coronel, N.O. Aguilar, D.E. Angeles and J.B.
Sangalang. 1997. Morphological investigations on three Sapindaceous species:
longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. ssp. longan var. longan),
lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn. ssp. chinensis) and alupag (L.
chinensis
ssp. philippinensis (Radlk.) Leenh.). Phil. J. Crop Sci.
Vol. 22. Suppl. No. 1:14.

Torres, J.P. 1961. Fruiting litchi bushes are actually discovered within the
Philippines. Plant Trade Digest 24 (7-8): 8-9, 26-27.

Wester, P.J. 1916. Meals crops of the Philippines. Phil.
Agric. Rev. 9:199-256.


[11] College Researcher
and Govt Officer, NPGRL – Institute of Plant Breeding (IPB),
College of the Philippines Los Banõs (UPLB) School, Laguna,
Philippines.

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